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# Series Non-Linear Resistor

The non-linear resistor model consists mainly of a compiled curve that describes, instantaneously, the behaviour of V with respect to I. It is known that the voltage curve with respect to the current in a resistor is a line whose slope is equal to the value of the resistance.

To represent a surge arrester, this line bends as the voltage increases. Hence, a surge arrester dissipates a greater quantity of current if an over voltage or surge occurs, since its resistance decreases.

**The resistor can be characterized as follows:**

The relation of V must be translated with respect to I (voltage versus current). The user has two options to translate this characteristic. Either the EMTP method, that describes sections in the form of exponential expressions, or using a matrix.

In the first case, the user must provide the information for a number of sections.

For example, the curve drawn in the figure above expresses the I-V relationship in four distinct sections. Three exponential sections (omit section 1 which is linear.) Section 2, delimited by Vmin(0) to Vmin(1) is described with the parameters P(0) and Q(0).

The exponential number i selected will force the user to provide the values of Vmin, P and Q for coefficient 0 to coefficient i-1.

A more simple method consists in describing the curve in a compiled way. For each value of V, the associated current value is entered.

# Mask and Parameters

## General Parameters

Name | Description | Unit | Variable = {Possible Values} | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Input Data Format | Select the parameter input type, either using the EMTP method (exponential section) or with a matrix. | |||

EMTP format | ||||

Number of exponentials | Number of exponential sections of the curve (does not include the first linear section). | |||

Vref | Base voltage on which the value of Vmin is evaluated (V). | V | ||

Vmin | Value of the voltage for each section change. There are as many Vmin values to provide as there are exponential sections (pu). | p.u. | ||

P | Value characterizing the exponential section. There are as many P values to provide as there are exponential sections (A). | A | ||

Q | Value characterizing the exponential section. There are as many Q values to provide as there are exponential sections. | A |

## Table Parameters

Name | Description | Unit | Variable = {Possible Values} | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Input Data Format | Select the parameter input type, either using the EMTP method (exponential section) or with a matrix. | |||

Matrix Format | ||||

Symmetry | The user defines the curve from 0 to +Vmax, and this curve is duplicated for the negative section. | |||

Asymmetry | The user defines a curve from -Vmax to +Vmax. The negative part can differ from the positive part. | |||

Number of points on the curve | Specifies the number of points characterizing the voltage curve with respect to the current. | p.u. | ||

V | Vector of voltage points based on the number of points specified by the user. Each point corresponds to a location on the curve. | V | ||

I | Vector of current points based on the number of points specified by the user. Each point corresponds to a location on the curve. | A |

# Ports, Inputs, Outputs and Signals Available for Monitoring

## Available Signals

At acquisition, the following signals are made available by the sensors:

Name | Description |
---|---|

I(a,b,c)_label | Current per phase in the non-linear resistor. |

SEG(a,b,c)_label | Exponential section being used. |

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