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AC Voltage Source with Impedance
Description
The impedance source is implemented as a threephase network element. The model is a Norton equivalent that directly interfaces with network elements.
Model equations
The equations below describe the impedance source:
Where
are the internal voltages of the source for phases a, b, and c, respectively.
are the resistances, mutual inductances, and selfinductances of the voltage source for i = a, b, c and j = a, b, c.
The internal voltages of the source are obtained automatically if the source participates in the load flow or are input by the user.
The resistances, mutual inductances, and selfinductances of the voltage source are obtained or calculated based on the selected Input Mode:
If Input Mode is Matrix: The user provides the source impedance matrix.
If Input Mode is Sequences: The user provides the positive and zero sequence impedances. The resistances, mutual inductances, and selfinductances are then calculated as follows:
Input Mode is ShortCircuit data. The user provides the threephase and singlephase shortcircuit powers, as well as the ratios between reactance and resistance for the positive and zero sequences. The resistances and reactances in the positive and zero sequences are then calculated as follows:
Where is the ratio between reactance and resistance of the positive sequence.
The zerosequence resistance is calculated by solving the secondorder equation below:
Where
And is the ratio between the reactance and the resistance of the zero sequence.
If this equation does not yield any real roots, and the resistance is obtained as follows:
Participation of the model in the loadflow solution
The impedance source participates in the load flow.
Mask and Parameters
The source with impedance form has three tabs:
General: contains the general parameters of the source.
Impedance: defines the source impedance.
Load Flow: defines the initial conditions of the source.
Below are each tab's figures, the variables' tables, and their definitions.
General
Name  Description  Unit 

Base Power  Rated power  kVA 
Base Voltage  Rated voltage (linetoline)  kV 
Frequency  Rated frequency  Hz 
Connection  Winding connection   
Amplitude  Amplitude (RMS phasetoground) of each phase  Ohm 
Angle  Angle of each phase  Ohm 
Impedance
Name  Description  Unit 

Input Mode  The impedance of the source can be chosen as follows:


R matrix mode  Resistance in matrix form  Ohm 
Lmatrix mode  Inductance sous forme matricielle  Henry 
Rsequence  Inductance in matrix form  Ohm 
Lsequence  Positive and zerosequence inductance  Henry 
S3cc3 phase shortcircuit power  Threephase shortcircuit power  W 
S1cc1 phase shortcircuit power  Singlephase shortcircuit power  W 
X1R1Ratio positive resistance and reactance  Ratio between resistance and reactance of the positive sequence   
X0R0Ratio homopolaire resistance and reactance  Ratio between resistance and reactance of the positive sequence   
Load Flow
Name  Description  Unit 

Type of bus  The bus can be:
  
Voltage  The desired voltage at the terminals of the source  pu 
Angle  The desired voltage angle at the terminals of the source  deg 
Active power  The active power delivered by the source  MW 
Reactive power  The reactive power delivered by the source  MVAr 
Reactive power minimum  The minimum reactive power that the source must deliver  MVAr 
Reactive power maximum  The maximum reactive power that the source must deliver  MVAr 
Ports, Inputs, Outputs and Signals Available for Monitoring
The figure above shows the symbol of the impedance source model in the Network Sources category of the HYPERSIM model library. This model has four pins:
Threephase pin (+)
Singlephase neutral pin
Ports
This model has four pins:
Net_S: Threephase pin (+), Network connector on the AC side. It supports a threephase connection.
Net_Ns: Singlephase neutral pin, Network connector on the AC side. Neutral connector. It supports singlephase connection.
Inputs
None
Outputs
Eas: Internal voltage of the source, phase A (V)
Ebs: Internal voltage of the source, phase B (V)
Ecs: Internal voltage of the source, phase C (V)
Ias: Measured current, phase A (A)
Ibs: Measured current, phase B (A)
Ics: Measured current, phase C (A)
Ps: Active power (W)
Qs: Reactive power (VAr).
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