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BERTA Panels for Virtual Grid Models
The virtual grid model library includes the speed governor and turbine models and their panels are described in the following section. The panels for the three PSS models available are also described.
Stab 1 Tab
Stab 2 Tab
Stab 3 Tab
PID Hydro Speed Governor Virtual Grid Tab
This tab provides access to the PID hydro speed governor’s settings for a Francis hydraulic turbine.
Parameters | Description | Default Value |
---|---|---|
Gate Set Point | Gate servomotor set point (p.u.) | 0.9 |
MW Set Point | Power set point (MW) | 81 |
Tfr | Frequency transducer time constant (s) | 0.016 |
DB_pos (pu) | Positive frequency dead-band threshold (p.u.) | 0 |
DB_neg (pu) | Negative frequency dead-band threshold (p.u.) | 0 |
PID Type | Selection switch for load pick-up | Fast |
Gd | Derivative gain | 0 |
Td | Derivative gain time constant | 0.1 |
Gp | Proportional gain | 5 |
Tp | Proportional gain time constant | 0.1 |
Gi | Integral gain | 1 |
Parameters | Description | Default Value |
---|---|---|
Gi_max | Maximum output value of the integrator (p.u.) | 1 |
Gi_min | Minimum output value of the integrator (p.u.) | 0 |
Ksm | Combined gain of the actuator, distributing valve and servomotor (p.u./s) | 10 |
Tact | Time constant of distributing valve chain (s) | 0.05 |
Vmax (pu/sec) | Maximum opening speed of the servomotor (p.u./s) | 0.1 |
Vmin (pu/sec) | Maximum closing speed of the servomotor (p.u./s) (Negative value) | -0.1 |
Gmax | Maximum servomotor stroke (opening) (p.u.) | 1 |
Gmin | Minimum servomotor stroke (opening) (p.u.) (≥ 0.1) | 0.1 |
PID_Bp_Type | Permanent droop signal selector | Gate |
Bp | Permanent droop | 0.05 |
Tpe | Power transducer time constant (s) | 0.3 |
Classical Hydro Speed Governor Virtual Grid Tab
This tab provides access to the classical hydro speed governor settings for a Francis hydraulic turbine, using a transient droop (Bt) as the main damping function.
Parameters | Description | Default Value |
---|---|---|
Gate Set Point | Gate servomotor set point (p.u.) | 0.9 |
MW Set Point | Power set point (MW) | 81 |
Tfr | Frequency transducer time constant (s) | 0.016 |
DB_pos (pu) | Positive frequency dead-band threshold (p.u.) | 0 |
DB_neg (pu) | Negative frequency dead-band threshold (p.u.) | 0 |
Bt | Temporary droop | 0.2 |
Tt | Temporary droop time constant (s) | 5 |
Ksm | Combined gain of the actuator, distributing valve and servomotor (p.u./s) | 10 |
Tact | Time constant of distributing valve chain (s) | 0.05 |
Vmax (pu/sec) | Maximum opening speed of the servomotor (p.u./s) | 0.1 |
Vmin (pu/sec) | Maximum closing speed of the servomotor (p.u./s) (Negative value) | -0.1 |
Gmax | Maximum servomotor stroke (opening) (p.u.) | 1 |
Gmin | Minimum servomotor stroke (opening) (p.u.) (≥ 0.1) | 0.1 |
Bp_Cl | Permanent droop signal selector | Gate |
Tpe | Power transducer time constant (s) | 0.3 |
Hydraulic Turbine Model Virtual Grid Tab
The hydraulic turbine tab provides access to the settings panel for a non-linear Francis hydraulic turbine.
The polynomial order 3Q (G) links water flow Q to the main servomotor position G, according to the following formula:
- Q(G) = AG3 + BG2 + CG + D
where: A = VG – Q(G) ^ 3; B = VG – Q(G) ^ 2; C = VG – Q(G) ^ 1; D = VG – Q(G) ^ 0
Similarly, the polynomial order 3 P(Q) connects turbine mechanical power P to water flow Q.
Parameter | Description | Default Value |
---|---|---|
Q(G)^3 | Power 3 coefficient of flow VS servomotor polynomial | 0 |
Q(G)^2 | Power 2 coefficient of flow VS servomotor polynomial | 0 |
Q(G)^1 | Power 1 coefficient of flow VS servomotor polynomial | 1 |
Q(G)^0 | Constant term of flow VS servomotor polynomial | 0 |
P(Q)^3 | Power 3 coefficient of power VS flow polynomial | 0 |
P(Q)^2 | Power 2 coefficient of power VS flow polynomial | 0 |
P(Q)^1 | Power 1 coefficient of power VS flow polynomial | 1 |
P(Q)^0 | Constant term of power VS flow polynomial | 0 |
Gross head (pu) | Gross head (p.u.) | 1 |
Hydro_Tw | Water starting time (s) | 1.5 |
Hydro_phi | Friction losses coefficient | 0 |
Hydro_PF | Turbine power factor (MW/MVA) | 0.9 |
Hydro a12 | Coefficient of flow deviation VS speed deviation | 0 |
Hydro ab22 | Coefficient of power deviation VS speed deviation | 0 |
Gas Turbine Speed Governor Virtual Grid
Note: Parameter values shown are the default values and can be changed to suit specific needs.
Notation | Description | Default Value |
---|---|---|
Pset | Power set point | 0.7 |
fb | Feedback selection | 0 |
ep | Droop (p.u. / p.u.) | 0.04 |
fset | Frequency set point (p.u.) | 1.0 |
db | Frequency dead band (p.u.) | 0.02 |
Kp | Proportional gain | 4 |
Ti | Time constant for integration | 0.8 |
Taw | Time constant anti-wind-up | 0.1 |
Td | Derivative gain (s) | 2 |
Tf | Time constant for derivative gain | 0.2 |
CVmax | Maximum valve opening (p.u.) | 1 |
Cvmin | Minimum valve opening (p.u.) | 0 |
Cvropen | Maximum opening speed (p.u. / s) | 0.5 |
Cvrclose | Maximum closing speed (p.u. / s) | 0.5 |
f | Grid frequency (p.u.) | |
Pmech | Mechanical power (p.u.) | |
CV | Valve opening (p.u.) |
Gas Turbine Model Virtual Grid Tab
Note: Parameter values shown are the default values and can be changed to suit specific needs.
Notation | Description | Default Value |
---|---|---|
G3 | Fuel control gain (=1-Fmin) (p.u. / p.u.) | 0.7 |
Td | Fuel control time delay (s) | 0 |
G6 | Frequency dependency selector | 0 |
Fmin | Minimum fuel flow (p.u.) | 0.3 |
Gs | Valve servomotor gain (p.u. / p.u.) | 1 |
Ts | Servomotor time constant (s) | 0.05 |
Char1 | Flow characteristics VS valve opening | 1 to 1 |
Tf | Fuel system time constant (s) | 0.2 |
Gfb | Fuel system feedback (p.u. / p.u.) | 0 |
Tc | Combustion chamber time delay (s) | 0.01 |
Tcd | Turbine reaction time constant (s) | 0.2 |
AF2 | Mechanical torque at zero fuel (p.u.) | -0.3 |
BF2 | Derivative of Mechanical torque to fuel flow (p.u. / p.u.) | 1.3 |
CF2 | Mechanical torque loss as function of speed (p.u. / p.u.) | 0.5 |
Wf (i4) | Fuel flow to combustion chamber (p.u.) | |
Wf2 (i1) | Equivalent fuel flow of turbine (p.u.) | |
Tmech | Mechanical torque exerted by the turbine (p.u.) |
Thermal Turbine Speed Governor Virtual Gird Tab
Note: Parameter values shown are the default values and can be changed to suit specific needs.
Notation | Description | Default Value |
---|---|---|
Cos (phi) | Power factor | 0.9 |
FDBmin | Lower level of the dead band (Hz) | 0 |
FDBmax | Upper level of the dead band (Hz) | 0 |
KGV | Gain (p.u. power / p.u. frequency) | 25 |
TGV | The time constant for valve servomotors (s) | 0.1 |
Ropen | Maximum opening speed (p.u. / s) | 0.05 |
Rclose | Maximum closing speed (p.u. / s) | -0.05 |
CVmax | Maximum valve opening (p.u.) | 1.0 |
CVmin | Minimum valve opening (p.u.) | 0.0 |
CVmode | Auto/Manual switch (unused) | 1 |
Note: Parameter values shown are the default values and can be changed to suit specific needs.
Notation | Description | Default Value |
---|---|---|
TCH | Time constant for steam chest (s) | 0.2 |
TRH | Time constant for re-heater (s) | 8 |
TCO | Time constant for cross-over (s) | 0.4 |
FHP | Fraction of generation in the high-pressure turbine | 0.25 |
FIP | Fraction of generation in intermediate pressure turbine | 0.3 |
FLP | Fraction of generation in the low-pressure turbine | 0.45 |
Boiler Virtual Grid Tab
Note: Parameter values shown are the default values and can be changed to suit specific needs.
Notation | Description | Default Value |
---|---|---|
CB | Time constant for steam storage (s) | 150 |
KSH | Coefficient for friction losses in super-heater (p.u. pressure / (p.u. flow)^2) | 0.1 |
RC | Integrating part of steam pressure controller (1/s) | 0.01 |
KC | Proportional gain in pressure controller | 2 |
TD | Time delay in fuel flow (s) | 5 |
TF | Time constant of steam generation | 20 |
SGmax | Maximum steam generation (p.u.) | 1.1 |
Kf1 | Positive feedback of control valve to the steam controller | 0 |
Kf2 | Positive feedback of steam flow to steam generation | 0 |
Kf3 | Positive feedback of control valve to steam generation | 0 |
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