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Arc Furnace

Arc furnace


The arc furnace model represents both the static and the dynamic behavior of the arc resistance. The characteristic of the furnace depends on the active power consumption which varies with the different operating conditions.This model is used to study the harmonics returned to the network and the wave quality, particularly the voltage flicker.

Table of Contents

Mask and Parameters

Arc furnace mask

General Parameters

DescriptionUse this field to add all kinds of information about the component
Arc resistance variation characteristic

Characteristic type of arc resistance; operating mode

  • Static: No variation of furnace resistance value before ignition
  • Static + sinusoidal: Modulation of the furnace resistance value before ignition following a low frequency sine
  • Static + white noise: Random variation of the furnace resistance value before ignition following a low frequency white noise
Active power consumption - PAverage power representing the operating conditions of the furnace; used to calculate the characteristic of the furnace before its ignition, irrespective of the operating mode (MW)
Ignition voltage - VigVoltage to be reached to ignite the furnace, hence for the electric arc to strike (V peak LG)
Extinction voltage - VexVoltage at which the furnace extinguishes; must be lower than the ignition voltage (V peak LG)
Current difference (Iig - Iex)Difference between ignition and extinction currents; must be greater than 0 (kA)

Sinusoidal Variation Parameters

FrequencyFrequency of sinusoidal variation (Hz)
AmplitudeAmplitude of sinusoidal variation (Ω)
PhasePhase of sinusoidal variation (deg)

White Noise Variation Parameters

  • Amplitude: Amplitude of random variation (Ω)
  • Seed: Random sequence seed for white noise

Ports, Inputs, Outputs and Signals Available for Monitoring


  • Net_1: Network connection (supports only 3-phase connections)


  • None


  • None


I(a,b,c)Arc furnace current (A)
V(a,b,c)Arc furnace voltage (V)
WhiteNoiseRandom variation added to the arc furnace resistance when the selected characteristic is Static + white noise, before bandpass filtering (Ω)

Random variation added to the arc furnace resistance when the selected characteristic is Static + white noise, after bandpass filtering (Ω)

Description of the Load Model

The block diagram of the arc furnace implementation is shown below:

Arc furnace block diagram

The V-I characteristic consists of three regions and is calculated using the arc furnace parameters and operating conditions. The R2 resistance, or the arc furnace resistance when the ignition threshold voltage is reached, depends only on the extinction and ignition firing voltages and their respective currents. As for the resistance prior to ignition firing, it is also dependent on the aforementioned parameters in addition to the average operating power. To this last resistance, it is possible to add a sinusoidal or random variation depending on the characteristic defined by the user. Hence the model takes into account and includes the periodic and stochastic changes in the arc resistance before its ignition.

The variables used in the block diagram are defined as follows:

VallFurnace ignition voltage
VexFurnace extinction voltage
I2-I1Difference between ignition and extinction currents
PmoyAverage operating power
Amp_sinAmplitude of sinusoidal variation
Freq_sinFrequency of sinusoidal variation
Pha_sinPhase of sinusoidal variation
Amp_al:Amplitude of random variation
GermeRandom sequence seed for white noise
TypeCharacteristic type of arc resistance
R1Resistance of furnace static characteristic before ignition
R1'Final furnace resistance before ignition
R2Furnace resistance once ignited

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