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PQ Load, 1-Ph series


This PQ load is a two-terminal single-phase element consisting of equivalent RL series or RC series branch where each branch can have an equivalent resistance (P → R), an equivalent inductance (Q > 0 → L) or an equivalent capacitor (Q < 0 → C) connected in series. This block is intended to be connected between phases in a three-phase network.

Table of Contents

Mask and Parameters

General Parameters:

V0Base value for PU conversion (kV)
F0Base value for PU conversion (Hz)

Load Parameters:

Base active power (P0)1-phase active power under nominal conditions (kW)
Base reactive power (Q0)1-phase reactive power under nominal conditions (kW)
NpActive power - Voltage variation coefficient
NqReactive power - Voltage variation coefficient
KpfActive power - Frequency variation coefficient
KqfReactive power - Frequency variation coefficient

Ports, Inputs, Outputs and Signals Available for Monitoring


  • Net_1: Network connection (supports only 1-phase connections)
  • Net_3: Network connection (supports only 1-phase connections)


  • None


  • None


  • F: Estimated current at the point of connection
  • Lout: Effective inductance or Capacitance
  • Rout: Effective resistance
  • Vrms: Estimated RMS voltage at the point of connection

Description of the Load Model

Load Model

The PQ load consists of the series combination of equivalent R, L and C branches and the series combination of equivalent R and L branches. The following rules are applied:

  • If P=0 and Q=0, the element becomes disconnected in all solution methods.
  • The RL series inductance equivalent is calculated using:
  • The resistance value in the RL series combination is given by:
  • When Q<0, the capacitance value becomes:

Model Equations

The model equations of this load are given by:


: Active power under nominal conditions

: Reactive power under nominal conditions

: Nominal voltage

: Frequency deviation from the nominal value F0 in pu.

: Active power-Frequency coefficient

: Reactive power-Frequency coefficient

: Active power-Voltage coefficient

: Reactive power-Voltage coefficient

: RMS voltage measured between connection nodes Net_T1 and Net_T3

By adjusting Np and Nq equal to 0, 1, or 2, the load can be set to work as a constant power, constant current, or constant impedance, respectively.

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