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# PT

# Mask and Parameters

**General**tab:

## General Parameters

Parameter | Description |

Flux-current characteristic model | Model saturation only or saturation with hysteresis |

Base primary voltage (rmsLL) | Base value pour PU conversion (kV) |

Base power (total) | Base value pour PU conversion (MVA) |

Base frequency | Base value pour PU conversion (Hz) |

Restriction resistance - Rtr | Restriction resistance (ohm or pu) sometimes used in the tertiary winding (see Configuration tab) |

**Stray Capacitances**

**C1p, C2p:**Values of the stray capacitance on the primary side before and after the leakage impedance (farad or pu)

**Primary Winding Parameters**

Np | Number of turns (default: np = 6000) |

Rp, Lp | Leakage resistance (ohm or pu) and inductance (henry or pu) |

Rm | Resistance (ohm) representing magnetization losses |

Rss | Source resistance (ohm or pu) |

**Secondary Winding Parameters**

Ns | Number of turns (default: ns = 1) |

Rs, Ls | Leakage resistance (ohm or pu) and inductance (henry or pu) |

Cs | Stray capacitance (farad or pu) |

Rsc | Resistance in parallel with Cs (ohm or pu) |

Rsa, Lsa | Load resistance (ohm) and load inductance (henry or pu) |

**Tertiary Winding Parameters**

Nt | Number of turns (default: ns = 1) |

Rt, Lt | Leakage resistance (ohm or pu) and inductance (henry or pu) |

Ct | Stray capacitance (farad or pu) |

Rtc | Resistance in parallel with Ct (ohm or pu) |

Rta, Lta | Load resistance (ohm) and load inductance (henry or pu) |

**Saturation**tab:

**Saturation parameters:**

Number of points | Number of segments of the current-flux saturation curve; only the positive part of the curve must be specified, the negative part being completed by symmetry |

Saturation current | The peak value of the current (in ampere or pu) for each segment of the saturation curve. The origin (0.0,0.0) is implied. The number of segments must be equal to the parameter “number of points” |

Saturation flux | The peak value of the flux (in volt-second or pu) for each segment of the saturation curve. The origin (0.0,0.0) is implied. The number of segments must be equal to the parameter “number of points” |

*Note that in this model, the saturation branch is located on the primary side of the transformer. Therefore, the saturation current and flux parameters should be referred to that side.*

**Configuration**tab

**Configuration parameters:**

Model type | Select either "Transducer" or "Network elements" model type |

Transformer windings connection | Select the type of windings connection as shown in the figure: "Yg+Yg+Yg", "Yg+Yg+Dg" or "Yg+Yg+Yg+Dg + Restriction" |

Polarity criterion | When the Transformer windings connection is "Yg+Yg+Yg+Dg", select either "Current" or "Voltage" as the polarity criterion |

**Hysteresis**tab

## Hysteresis Parameters

The main hysteresis cycle is characterized by four parameters. It is measured in DC so as not to include the Foucault losses, which are considered by the parallel resistance (Rm). The initial trajectory is characterized by only one parameter, the initial flux. Two other special parameters serve to minimize the generation of internal nested loops, and their corresponding trajectories, saved in memory (e.g. the loops that are too small will be ignored and their trajectories modelized by a straight line segment).

This is useful since their number must be limited (100 which suffices in most simulated cases). Above this cycle (limited to ±Is), the saturation zone is entered. The saturation is then characterized either by a series of points on the curve or by an inductance that the curve approaches asymptotically. In this last case, the model generates automatically segments (in the positive and negative saturation zone) of equal length (Is).

Saturation data type | Determines if the saturation curve is calculated by the model or defined by a series of segments (Equation, Curve) |

Air core inductance | Value of the saturation inductance that the curve approaches asymptotically (henry or pu) |

Slope at Ic | Flux slope at coercive current (henry or pu) |

| Positive coercive current at null flux (A or pu) |

Saturation current - Is | Current value of the first point in the saturation zone (A or pu) |

Current tolerance | Special parameter limiting the generation of minor nested loops. When the magnetizing current values at the last inversion point and the preceding inversion point are closer than the specified tolerance (in % of Ic), it is assumed that there is a displacement on a trajectory represented by a straight line segment. |

Remnant flux - Φr | Positive remnant flux at null current (V.s or pu) |

Saturation flux - Φs | Flux value of the first point in the saturation zone (V.s or pu) |

Flux tolerance | Special parameter limiting the generation of minor nested loops. When the flux values at the last inversion point and the preceding inversion point are closer than the specified tolerance (in % of Φs), it is assumed that there is a displacement on the current loop. |

Initial flux (peak) | Initial flux determining initial trajectory which is calculated by supposing that it has an inversion point on the main cycle (V.s or pu) |

Number of points | Number of segments of the current-flux saturation curve; only the positive part of the curve must be specified, the negative part being completed by symmetry |

Saturation current: | Current for each segment of the saturation curve; the first value must be equal to Is (A or pu) |

Saturation flux | Flux for each segment of the saturation curve; the first value must be equal to Φs (V.s or pu) |

# Ports, Inputs, Outputs and Signals Available for Monitoring

## Ports

Net_1 | Primary winding connection (supports only 3-phase connections) |

## Inputs

- None

## Outputs

- None

## Sensors

VMAG(a,b,c) | Voltage in magnetization branch (V) |

IMAG(a,b,c) | Magnetization current (A) |

FLUX(a,b,c) | Mutual flux in the transformer (V.s) |

VLOADSEC(a,b,c,n) | Load voltage on the secondary |

VLOADTER(a,b,c) | Load voltage on the tertiary |

VLOADTER0 | Ground voltage on the tertiary |

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