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51- Inverse Time Overcurrent (1-ph)
The 51OC element implements the inverse-time overcurrent protection logic. The input operating quantity can be the RMS of phase current, ground current or symmetrical components.
Description
With the 51OC element, there are two options which determine the tripping time: one is by using the inverse time overcurrent curves based on IEC and US standards or based on parameters which are specified by the user. Their characteristic is explained further in the help file. The other option to determine the tripping time is by defining a customized curve using five data points in the settings. Each data point corresponds to a current pickup and an associated trip delay. The complete inverse-time overcurrent characteristic is defined using linear interpolation between the five data points using an integrator. The relay operates when the current exceeds the preset pickup values for a corresponding time delay.
The relay resets once the input current drops to below the pickup current value. The reset can be instantaneous, which means the reset time is not according to an inverse curve and is an instant zero. Or it can be timed, which means the reset time is according to a reset inverse curve and its defined characteristics.
Inverse Time Overcurrent Curves
If the input current is above the pickup level and custom curves are not used, the relay's tripping time is calculated based on the following equation:
The reset time of the relay can be calculated based on this equation in an inverse curve:
TD is a time dial multiplier, M is the value of the input current divided by the pickup current, and the rest of the parameters are characteristics of the inverse curve that define it. The parameters can be from standard curves such as the US standard and IEC standard curves, or they can be specified by the user to create their own inverse curve. As mentioned before, the reset curve only applies if the relay's reset setting is timed and not instantaneous.
The US standard coefficients are based on the values used by SEL relays and it follows the IEEE C37.112-2018 equation. The IEC curves use the same equation and coefficients stated by the IEC 60255 standard for inverse time overcurrent relays .
Curve Name | Curve Shape | A | B | P | K | Tr | Q |
US (U1) | Moderately Inverse | 0.0226 | 0.0104 | 0.02 | 0 | 1.08 | 2 |
US (U2) | Inverse | 0.180 | 5.95 | 2 | 0 | 5.95 | 2 |
US (U3) | Very Inverse | 0.0963 | 3.88 | 2 | 0 | 3.88 | 2 |
US (U4) | Extremely Inverse | 0.0352 | 5.67 | 2 | 0 | 5.67 | 2 |
US (U5) | Short-time Inverse | 0.00262 | 0.00342 | 0.02 | 0 | 0.323 | 2 |
IEC (C1) | Standard Inverse | 0 | 0.14 | 0.02 | 0 | 13.5 | 2 |
IEC (C2) | Very Inverse | 0 | 13.5 | 1 | 0 | 47.3 | 2 |
IEC (C3) | Extremely Inverse | 0 | 80 | 2 | 0 | 80 | 2 |
IEC (C4) | Long-time Inverse | 0 | 120 | 1 | 0 | 120 | 1 |
IEC (C5) | Short-time Inverse | 0 | 0.05 | 0.04 | 0 | 4.85 | 2 |
The following curve shows the U Series Inverse Curve types.
The next figure shows the C Series Inverse Curve types.
Inverse Time Overcurrent Custom Curves
The custom curve settings for the 51 element have five levels of settings, using five data points. The resulting curve delimits the inverse-time overcurrent operation characteristics using a linear interpolation method between the data points. This means that if an overcurrent scenario occurs and the current measurement is between Level 5 and Level 4, the time delay for such overcurrent level will be linearly calculated between the corresponding Time 5 and Time 4 settings. The pickup current values and delay times are all tunable parameters. The inverse time overcurrent characteristic of the 51 element is presented in the figure below.
NOTE: The custom curve only affects the trip time. Timed reset still follows the inverse curves and their parameters.
Mask and Parameters
General Parameters
Name | Description | Unit | Variable = {Possible Values} | |
---|---|---|---|---|
Pickup current | Pickup current for 51OC | pu or A | Ipck_51P_param = {[0, 30]} | |
Time Dial | Time Dial Multiplier | - | TD51P_param = {[0, 600]} | |
Reset type | Type of relay reset | - | Reset_set_param = {[0, 1]} | |
Timed | Timed Reset | |||
Instant | Instantaneous Reset |
Inverse curve parameters
Name | Description | Unit | Variable = {Possible Values} | |
---|---|---|---|---|
Inverse curve options | Option to use standard curve parameters or user-defined ones for inverse curves | - | User_coef_param = {[0, 1]} | |
Use standard parameters for inverse curve | Standard inverse curves | |||
Use custom parameters for inverse curve | User-defined inverse curves | |||
Standard IEC and US curve types | Curve types based on IEC or US Standard | - | curve_type_51P_param = {[0, 10]} | |
U1 | U.S. Moderately Inverse | |||
U2 | U.S. Inverse | |||
U3 | U.S. Very Inverse | |||
U4 | U.S. Extremely Inverse | |||
U5 | U.S. short-time Inverse | |||
C1 | IEC Class A Standard Inverse | |||
C2 | IEC Class B Very Inverse | |||
C3 | IEC Class C Extremely Inverse | |||
C4 | IEC Long-time Inverse | |||
C5 | IEC Short-time Inverse | |||
Inverse curve with user-specific parameters | ||||
Trip parameters | A | 'A' characteristic for user-defined inverse curve | - | A_param = {[0, 200]} |
B | B' characteristic for user-defined inverse curve | B_param = {[0, 200]} | ||
P | 'P' characteristic for user-defined inverse curve | P_param = {[eps, 2]} | ||
K | K' characteristic for user-defined inverse curve | K_param = {[0, 50]} | ||
Reset parameters | Tr | 'Tr' characteristic for user-defined inverse curve | - | Tr_param = {[0, 50]} |
Q | 'Q' characteristic for user-defined inverse curve | Q_param = {[eps, 50]} |
NOTE: Since P and Q are powers in the denominator, if they are 0, the denominator becomes 0 which means the equation becomes infinity. To prevent this situation, if the value is set to 0 by the user, it is not taken by the relay and instead epsilon, which is a very small value, is used by the relay.
Custom curve parameters
Name | Description | Unit | Variable = {Possible Values} | |
---|---|---|---|---|
Use custom curves 51P | Option to use custom curves instead of standard time curves NOTE: The custom curve is only applicable to relay's trip time. Timed reset still follows the reset parameters in inverse curves tab. | - | cust51P_param = {0, 1} | |
Level 1, 51P | The pickup current of Level 1 in 51P | pu/A | level1_51_param = { [0, 30] } | |
Level 2, 51P | The pickup current of Level 2 in 51P | pu/A | level2_51_param = { [0, 30] } | |
Level 3, 51P | The pickup current of Level 3 in 51P. | pu/A | level3_51_param = { [0, 30] } | |
Level 4, 51P | The pickup current of Level 4 in 51P. | pu/A | level4_51_param = { [0, 30] } | |
Level 5, 51P | The pickup current of Level 5 in 51P. | pu/A | level5_51_param = { [0, 30] } | |
Time for level 1, 51P | The time delay for Level 1 in 51P. | s | time1_51_param = { [0, 600] } | |
Time for level 2, 51P | The time delay for Level 2 in 51P. | s | time2_51_param = { [0, 600] } | |
Time for level 3, 51P | The time delay for Level 3 in 51P. | s | time3_51_param = { [0, 600] } | |
Time for level 4, 51P | The time delay for Level 4 in 51P. | s | time4_51_param = { [0, 600] } | |
Time for level 5, 51P | The time delay for Level 5 in 51P. | s | time5_51_param = { [0, 600] } |
Inputs, Outputs and Signals Available for Monitoring
Inputs
Name | Description | Unit |
---|---|---|
I | The per unit or actual RMS value (in A) of actuating current | pu or A |
Outputs
Name | Description | Unit |
---|---|---|
Trip | The output of 51OC relay. By default, it is 0, if an overcurrent scenario is detected, it becomes 1. When the input signal falls below the pickup value, it resets. | Binary |
Sensors
Name | Description | Unit |
---|---|---|
I | The per unit or actual RMS value (in A) of actuating current | pu or A |
Trip | The output of 51P overcurrent relay. By default it is 0, if an overcurrent scenario is detected, it becomes 1 | Binary |
References
OPAL-RT TECHNOLOGIES, Inc. | 1751, rue Richardson, bureau 1060 | Montréal, Québec Canada H3K 1G6 | opal-rt.com | +1 514-935-2323