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# 2-Winding 3-Phase Saturable Transformer

# Mask and Parameters

## General Parameters

Description | Use this field to add all kinds of information about the component |

Flux-current model | Model saturation only or saturation with hysteresis |

Iteration in saturation model | Enable or disable iteration to achieve more accurate results at the expense of computation time when the saturation segment changes |

Base primary/secondary winding voltage (rmsLL) | Base value for PU conversion (kV) Voltage expressed in kV rms LL This base voltage and nominal voltage will change, if the corresponding winding connection switches between delta and Y. |

Base power (total) | Base value for PU conversion (MVA) |

Base frequency | Base value for PU conversion (Hz) |

## Magnetization Impedance Parameters

**Rm:**Equivalent resistance of iron losses of the magnetic circuit (Ω)

## Winding Parameters

Primary/secondary connection | Winding type Y ground: Grounded Y connection (can use the internal neutral impedance specified in the other tab) Y floating: Floating Y connection Y neutral: Y connection with impedance connected at the input pin N1 or N2 Delta lead: Delta connection with lead of 30° Delta ground: Grounded delta connection (Phase C is grounded) Delta lag: Delta connection with lag of 30° |

Voltage (rmsLL) | Rated voltage of the winding (kV) Y connections: Voltage expressed in kV rms LL Delta connections: Voltage expressed in kV rms LL |

R1, R2 | Leakage resistance of the winding (Ω) |

L1, L2 | Leakage inductance of the winding (H) |

## Neutral Impedance Parameters

R1, R2 | Neutral resistance of the winding; only applies to Y ground (Ω) |

L1, L2 | Neutral inductance of the winding; only applies to Y ground (H) |

C1, C2 | Neutral capacitance of the winding; only applies to Y ground (F) |

## Saturation Parameters

The saturation is characteristic of the core, thus of the winding and not the type of 3-phase connection (Y, Delta or Zigzag). It is represented only for the magnetization branch (schematically using line segments).

Number of data points | Number of segments of the current-flux saturation curve; only the positive part of the curve must be specified, the negative part being completed by symmetry |

Saturation current | Current for each segment of the saturation curve; the origin (0,0) is implied (A) |

Saturation flux | Flux for each segment of the saturation curve; the origin (0.0,0.0) is implied (V.s) |

## Hysteresis Parameters

The main hysteresis cycle is characterized by four parameters. It is measured in DC so as not to include the Foucault losses, which are considered by the parallel resistance (Rm). The initial trajectory is characterized by only one parameter, the initial flux. Two other special parameters serve to minimize the generation of internal nested loops, and their corresponding trajectories, saved in memory (e.g. the loops that are too small will be ignored and their trajectories modelized by a straight line segment).

This is useful since their number must be limited (100 which suffices in most simulated cases). Above this cycle (limited to ±Is), the saturation zone is entered. The saturation is then characterized either by a series of points on the curve or by an inductance that the curve approaches asymptotically. In this last case, the model generates automatically segments (in the positive and negative saturation zone) of equal length (Is).

Saturation data type | Determines if the saturation curve is calculated by the model or defined by a series of segments (Equation, Curve) |

Air core inductance | Value of the saturation inductance that the curve approaches asymptotically (H) |

Slope at Ic | Flux slope at coercive current (H) |

Coercitive current - Ic | Positive coercive current at null flux (A) |

Saturation current - Is | Current value of the first point in the saturation zone (A) |

Current tolerance | Special parameter limiting the generation of minor nested loops. When the magnetizing current values at the last inversion point and the preceding inversion point are closer than the specified tolerance (in % of Ic), it is assumed that there is a displacement on a trajectory represented by a straight line segment. |

Remnant flux - Φr | Positive remnant flux at null current (V.s) |

Saturation flux - Φs | Flux value of the first point in the saturation zone (V.s) |

Flux tolerance | Special parameter limiting the generation of minor nested loops. When the flux values at the last inversion point and the preceding inversion point are closer than the specified tolerance (in % of Φs), it is assumed that there is a displacement on the current loop. |

Initial flux (peak) | Initial flux determining initial trajectory which is calculated by supposing that it has an inversion point on the main cycle (V.s) |

Number of points: | Number of segments of the current-flux saturation curve; only the positive part of the curve must be specified, the negative part being completed by symmetry |

Saturation current | Current for each segment of the saturation curve; the first value must be equal to Is (A) |

Saturation flux | Flux for each segment of the saturation curve; the first value must be equal to Φs (V.s) |

# Ports, Inputs, Outputs and Signals Available for Monitoring

## Ports

Net_1 | Primary winding connection (supports only 3-phase connections) |

Net_2 | Secondary winding connection (supports only 3-phase connections) |

Net_N1 | Neutral connection for primary winding (supports only 1-phase connections) |

Net_N2 | Neutral connection for secondary winding (supports only 1-phase connections) |

## Inputs

- None

## Outputs

- None

## Sensors

FLUX(a,b,c) | Magnetization flux for each phase (V.s) |

ILMAG(a,b,c) | Magnetization current for each phase (A) |

IPRIM(a,b,c) | Primary current for each phase (A) |

ISEC2(a,b,c) | Secondary current for each phase (A) |

SEG(a,b,c) | Segment number of the saturation curve In the saturation model, the numbering is always positive starting at 1 for the last segment in the negative saturation zone. In the hysteresis model, the numbering is positive/negative starting at 1/-1 in the positive/negative saturation zone. In the hysteresis zone, it takes a null value. |

# References

«Hysteresis Modeling in the Matlab/Power System Blockset», Silvano Casoria, Patrice Brunelle, Gilbert Sybille, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Volume 63, Issues 3-5, Pages 237-248

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