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# SSN Distributed Parameter Line with Fault

# Library

ARTEMiS/SSN/Lines

# Blocks

# Description

The SSN Distributed Parameters Line with Fault block implements a Bergeron's travelling wave line with losses, also known as CP-line in EMTP-RV, with a fault at the middle. The model actually implements two DPL lines in series with an internal mid-point faults at a distance specified by the user. The fault type and distance can be changed during on-line simulation, *without the need to recompile the model*.

### Exact loss repartition on each side of the fault

The model uses SSN UCB[1] to dynamically modify the surge impedance of the line according to the fault distance, including an exact distribution of losses between on both side of the fault. While the previous ARTEMiS Distributed Parameters Line with Variable Internal Fault Distance (ADPLF) had to approximate and fix the losses 50/50 on both side of the fault without regards to the fault location, *this new SSN Distributed Parameters Line with Fault model does not make such an approximation and losses are dynamically reattributed, without approximation, to each side of the fault.*

# Masks

# Parameters

**Number of phases N**: Currently, only 3-phase lines are supported

**Frequency used for RLC specifications**: Specifies the frequency used to compute the resistance R, inductance L, and capacitance C matrices of the line model.

**Resistance per unit length**: The resistance R per unit length, as an N-by-N matrix in ohms/km. For a symmetrical line, you can either specify the N-by-N matrix or the sequence parameters. For a two-phase or three-phase continuously transposed line, you can enter the positive and zero-sequence resistances [R1 R0]. For a symmetrical six-phase line you can set the sequence parameters plus the zero-sequence mutual resistance [R1 R0 R0m]. For asymmetrical lines, you must specify the complete N-by-N resistance matrix.

**Inductance per unit length**: The inductance L per unit length, as an N-by-N matrix in henries/km (H/km). For a symmetrical line, you can either specify the N-by-N matrix or the sequence parameters. For a two-phase or three-phase continuously transposed line, you can enter the positive and zero-sequence inductances [L1 L0]. For a symmetrical six-phase line, you can enter the sequence parameters plus the zero-sequence mutual inductance [L1 L0 L0m]. For asymmetrical lines, you must specify the complete N-by-N inductance matrix.

**Capacitance per unit length**: The capacitance C per unit length, as an N-by-N matrix in farads/km (F/km). For a symmetrical line, you can either specify the N-by-N matrix or the sequence parameters. For a two-phase or three-phase continuously transposed line, you can enter the positive and zero-sequence capacitances [C1 C0]. For a symmetrical six-phase line you can enter the sequence parameters plus the zero-sequence mutual capacitance [C1 C0 C0m]. For asymmetrical lines, you must specify the complete N-by-N capacitance matrix.

**Line length**: The line length, in km. This length is the total length of the line, not the individual length of the 2 line sections used by the model.

# Input and Output signals

**Simulink connection points**

**Fault distance ratio**: The distance of the fault from the (Capital) ABC terminal in PU.

**Fault**: The fault is activated when this input equals 1.

**Fault params**: Fault type selection (ABCG, AB, etc…). Normally connected to an *OpElectricFaultSelector* block for easy configuration.

**Physical Modeling connection points**

**Electric ports:** Each side of the line is electrically connected with ABC and abc ports on each side.

# Examples

The demo model ssn_VariableFaultDPL.slx compares the SSN Distributed Parameters Line with Fault with 2 standard DPL and middle fault, with a fault distance of 0.2 PU (from the ABC terminal). A 1-cycle (60Hz) ABC-to-ground fault is applied after 5 cycles of simulation. All signals match perfectly between the SSN Distributed Parameters Line with Fault and the reference model; the input current and end-phase voltage are perfectly superposed.

# References

[1] C. Dufour, J. Mahseredjian , J. Bélanger, “A Combined State-Space Nodal Method for the Simulation of Power System Transients”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 26, no. 2, April 2011 (ISSN 0885-8977), pp. 928-935

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