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ESST4B
Description
This model is based on the ST4B excitation system in which is applied a low-pass filter to the terminal voltage transducer output, EC. This model is a variation of the Type ST3A model, with a proportional plus integral (PI) regulator block replacing the lag-lead regulator characteristic that was in the ST3A model. Both potential-and compound source rectifier excitation systems are modeled as shown in the figure below. The PI regulator blocks have nonwind up limits. The voltage regulator of this model is typically implemented digitally, so the model is identified with the suffix “B.”
The other features of the regulator are a low value gate for the OEL limit function, and the UEL and V/Hz control are summed into the input to the regulator. This means that on a unit with PSS control, the PSS will be active if the unit goes into UEL limit control, unlike some previous designs that had take-over type limiters. There is flexibility in the power component model to represent bus-fed exciters (KI and XL both equal to zero), compound static systems (XL = 0), and potential- and compound-source systems where XL is not zero. The appropriate PSS model to use with the ST4B excitation model is Type PSS2B.
Mask and Parameters
AVR Parameters
Expanding the "AVR diagram" displays the block diagram in the parameters window.
Name | Description | Unit |
---|---|---|
Tr | Regulator input filter time constant | s |
Kpr | Voltage regulator proportional gain | - |
Kir | Voltage regulator integral gain | - |
Vrmin | Minimum voltage regulator output | pu |
Vrmax | Maximum voltage regulator output | pu |
Ta | Voltage regulator time constant | s |
Kg | Feedback gain constant of the inner loop field regulator | - |
Kpm | Voltage regulator proportional gain | - |
Kim | Voltage regulator integral gain | - |
Vmmin | Minimal output factor of converter bridge corresponding to firing angle command to thyristors | pu |
Vmmax | Maximal output factor of converter bridge corresponding to firing angle command to thyristors | pu |
Exciter Parameters
Expanding the "Exciter diagram" displays the block diagram in the parameters window.
Name | Description | Unit |
---|---|---|
Kp | Potential circuit real part gain coefficient | - |
Kj | Potential circuit imaginary part gain coefficient | - |
Xl | Reactance associated with potential source | pu |
Kc | Rectifier loading factor proportional to commutating reactance | - |
Vbmax | Maximum available exciter voltage | pu |
Initial Values
Name | Description | Unit |
---|---|---|
Efd0 | Initial exciter output voltage | pu |
Ifd0 | Initial exciter output current | pu |
Inputs, Outputs and Signals Available for Monitoring
Inputs
Name | Description | Unit |
---|---|---|
E_{C} | Output of terminal voltage transducer and load compensation elements | pu |
V_{UEL} | Underexcitation limiter output | pu |
V_{S} | Is defined as the output voltage of a Power System Stabilizer (PSS) [1]. | pu |
V_{REF} | Voltage regulator reference voltage | pu |
V_{T} | Synchronous machine terminal voltage | pu |
I_{T} | Synchronous machine terminal current | pu |
I_{FD} | Synchronous machine field current | pu |
Outputs
Name | Description | Unit |
---|---|---|
EFD | Exciter output voltage | pu |
References
[1] "IEEE Recommended Practice for Excitation System Models for Power System Stability Studies," in IEEE Std 421.5-2016 (Revision of IEEE Std 421.5-2005) , vol., no., pp.1-207, 26 Aug. 2016, doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2016.7553421.
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