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PI Section, 12-ph with Fault

Description

The PI line model is mainly used for short transmission lines. The equivalent circuit is shown below.

It is assumed that the capacitance on both sides is identical. The RL branches are also coupled. The parameters for the 12-phase PI lines are the same as those for 3-phase PI lines, except that the dimension of the R, L and C matrices representing the impedance and admittance of the conductors is 12x12, instead of 3x3. The 12-phase PI model represents four 3-phase transmission lines in parallel. 

In this model, there is a new parameter for sequences. The neutral coupling between the four line circuits (mutual impedance) is represented only in zero sequence.

This model can be used to simulate an internal fault. However, the number of operations allowed in this model is four (4) per fault element, instead of ten (10) in normal cases.



Table of Contents



Mask and Parameters

General Parameters

Name

Description

Unit

Variable = {Possible Values}

Name

Description

Unit

Variable = {Possible Values}

Description

Use this field to add information about the component



Description = {'string'}

EMTP (.pun) file for line parameters calculation

The location (path) of the EMTP file (pun file) containing the line parameters. However, the EMTP “.pun” format is not allowed with this model



File = {'path.name'}

Line 1

Fault distance from (+) side (Line 1)

km

fault_loc1 = {0, 1e64}

Line 2

Fault distance from (+) side (Line 2)

km

fault_loc2 = {0, 1e64}

Line 3

Fault distance from (+) side (Line 3)

km

fault_loc3 = {0, 1e64}

Line 4

Fault distance from (+) side (Line 4)

km

fault_loc4 = {0, 1e64}

Type

The line data can be taken using Matrix or Sequence parameters  



Matrix/Sequence = { 0, 1}

Matrix {0}

Untransposed line. The data is filled in the matrices

Sequence {1}

Transposed line. The data is filled in the sequences

Line length

The length of the line

km

length = {0, 1e64}

Base power (perPhase)

Base value for PU conversion

MVA per phase

pBase = { [1, 1e64] }

Base voltage (rmsLN)

Base value for PU conversion

kV rms LN

vBase = { [1, 1e64] }

Base frequency

Base value for PU conversion

Hz

fBase = { [1, 1e64] }

Matrix Parameters

Name

Description

Unit

Variable = {Possible Values}

Name

Description

Unit

Variable = {Possible Values}

Resistance - R

Resistance matrix (12x12)

Ω/km

R = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Inductance - L

Inductance matrix (12x12)

H/km

L = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Capacitance - C

Capacitance matrix (12x12)

F/km

= {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Sequence Parameters

Name

Description

Unit

Variable = {Possible Values}

Name

Description

Unit

Variable = {Possible Values}

Self impedance - Line 

R

Resistance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 1)

Ω/km

Rself1 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

L

Inductance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 1)

H/km

Lself1 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

C

Capacitance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 1)

F/km

Cself1 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Self impedance - Line 2

R

Resistance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 2)

Ω/km

Rself2 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

L

Inductance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 2)

H/km

Lself2 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

C

Capacitance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 2)

F/km

Cself2 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Self impedance - Line 3

R

Resistance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 3)

Ω/km

Rself3 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

L

Inductance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 3)

H/km

Lself3 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

C

Capacitance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 3)

F/km

Cself3 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Self impedance - Line 4

R

Resistance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 4)

Ω/km

Rself4 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

L

Inductance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 4)

H/km

Lself4 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

C

Capacitance value for Zero and Positive sequences (Line 4)

F/km

Cself4 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Mutual impedance lines 1-2

R

Mutual resistance value between lines 1-2 

Ω/km

Rmut12 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

L

Mutual inductance value between lines 1-2 

H/km

Lmut12 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

C

Mutual capacitance value between lines 1-2 

F/km

Cmut12 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Mutual impedance lines 1-3

R

Mutual resistance value between lines 1-3

Ω/km

Rmut13 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

L

Mutual inductance value between lines 1-3

H/km

Lmut13 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

C

Mutual capacitance value between lines 1-3

F/km

Cmut13 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Mutual impedance lines 1-4

R

Mutual resistance value between lines 1-4

Ω/km

Rmut14 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

L

Mutual inductance value between lines 1-4

H/km

Lmut14 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

C

Mutual capacitance value between lines 1-4

F/km

Cmut14 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Mutual impedance lines 2-4

R

Mutual resistance value between lines 2-4

Ω/km

Rmut24 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

L

Mutual inductance value between lines 2-4

H/km

Lmut24 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

C

Mutual capacitance value between lines 2-4

F/km

Cmut24 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Mutual impedance lines 2-3

R

Mutual resistance value between lines 2-3 

Ω/km

Rmut23 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

L

Mutual inductance value between lines 2-3 

H/km

Lmut23 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

C

Mutual capacitance value between lines 2-3 

F/km

Cmut23 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Mutual impedance lines 3-4

R

Mutual resistance value between lines 3-4

Ω/km

Rmut34 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

L

Mutual inductance value between lines 3-4 

H/km

Lmut34 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

C

Mutual capacitance value between lines 3-4 

F/km

Cmut34 = {'-1e64, 1e64'}

Timing Parameters

Name

Description

Unit

Variable = {Possible Values}

Name

Description

Unit

Variable = {Possible Values}

Time units

Units applied to the programmed state transition operations










Ut = {s, ms, c}



Second {s}

All operations Tn are in seconds



Millisecond {ms}

All operations Tn are in milliseconds



Cycle {c}

All operations Tn are in electrical cycles (setting the frequency is mandatory)

Time programming

Master switch that determines whether the programmed operations occur when triggering an acquisition







EnaGen = {0, 1}



Disable {0}

Programmed operations are disabled



Enable {1}

Programmed operations are enabled

Steady-state condition



Line 1

State of phase breakers for Line 1 in steady-state; “colored” if the breaker is open and “grey” if the breaker is closed



iniStateA = {0, 1}

iniStateB = {0, 1}

iniStateC = {0, 1}

iniStateG = {0, 1}



Line 2

State of phase breakers for Line 2 in steady-state; “colored” if the breaker is open and “grey” if the breaker is closed



iniStateA2 = {0, 1}

iniStateB2 = {0, 1}

iniStateC2 = {0, 1}

iniStateG2 = {0, 1}



Line 3

State of phase breakers for Line 3 in steady-state; “colored” if the breaker is open and “grey” if the breaker is closed



iniStateA3 = {0, 1}

iniStateB3 = {0, 1}

iniStateC3 = {0, 1}

iniStateG3 = {0, 1}



Line 4

State of phase breakers for Line 4 in steady-state; “colored” if the breaker is open and “grey” if the breaker is closed



iniStateA4 = {0, 1}

iniStateB4 = {0, 1}

iniStateC4 = {0, 1}

iniStateG4 = {0, 1}

Frequency

Should be set using the parameter "Base frequency".

Hz

Freq = { [45, 70] }

Switching times

Line 1

Enable/disable the state transition operation on Line 1.





EnaT1 = {0, 1}

EnaT2 = {0, 1}

...

Disable {0}

Disable the state transition operation on the same line

Enable {1}

Enable the state transition operation on the same line. If the line is enabled but no information is present, the state transition operation is ignored.

Line 2

Enable/disable the state transition operation on Line 2.



EnaT1_2 = {0, 1}

EnaT2_2 = {0, 1}

...

Disable {0}

Disable the state transition operation on the same line

Enable {1}

Enable the state transition operation on the same line. If the line is enabled but no information is present, the state transition operation is ignored.

Line 3

Enable/disable the state transition operation on Line 3.

EnaT1_3 = {0, 1}

EnaT2_3 = {0, 1}

...

Disable {0}

Disable the state transition operation on the same line

Enable {1}

Enable the state transition operation on the same line. If the line is enabled but no information is present, the state transition operation is ignored.

Line 4

Enable/disable the state transition operation on Line 4.

EnaT1_4 = {0, 1}

EnaT2_4 = {0, 1}

...

Disable {0}

Disable the state transition operation on the same line

Enable {1}

Enable the state transition operation on the same line. If the line is enabled but no information is present, the state transition operation is ignored.

Type(f,i,u,ug)





Relative time (with respect to POW synchronization) when the command is sent to the breaker (or switch) to change state. There are four ways to input this time.

Important notes:

  • For changes of state to occur, programmed operation times must always respect Tn>Tn-1.

  • If a parameter field is blank or contains “-”, no switching occurs for this line.

  • There is no alias for the type of timing in the API. The timing type and values are entered as a single string.

  • If using referenced operations, the calculated time is applied after it received the command from the other component. See the Referenced Operations section for more information.













Refer to "Time units" parameter

T1 = {'string'}

T2 = {'string'}

...



T1_2 = {'string'}

T2_2 = {'string'}

...



T1_3 = {'string'}

T2_3 = {'string'}

...



T1_4 = {'string'}

T2_4 = {'string'}

...



Fixed

{f: fixed time}

At each acquisition, Tn command is sent at the same time for all phases selected in "Phase operated".



Incremental

{i: initial time/final time/time increment}

For the first acquisition, Tn command is sent at the set initial time for all phases selected in "Phase operated". Then at each acquisition, Tn command is sent a time increment later than the previous acquisition. Once the final time is reached, the next acquisition is done using the initial time again.



Uniform

{u: minimal time/maximal time}

At each acquisition, Tn command is sent at a random time. The probability is uniform over the specified range. All phases selected in "Phase operated" DO NOT receive the command at the same time, it is also random.



Uniform Gaussian

{ug: minimal time/maximal time/ dispersion}

At each acquisition, Tn command is sent at a random time. The probability follows a Gaussian distribution over the specified range. All phases selected in "Phase operated" DO NOT receive the command at the same time, it is also random.

Referenced operations

Use to refer the triggering of Tn to another breaker programmed state transition. See the Referenced Operations section for more information.

NB: all columns must be filled for the referenced operation to work.







Line 1

Ref operation

Name (or path) of the breaker to which the timing is referenced



Eref1 = {'path.name'}

Eref2 = {'path.name'}

...

Ref time

Time Tn ID of the referenced breaker's step to which the timing is referenced



Tref1 = {Tn}

Tref2 = {Tn}

...

Phase/Command

Activate (Phase {1}) or deactivate (Command {0}) the reference dependency



T1RPh = {0, 1}

T2RPh = {0, 1}

...

Line 2

Ref operation

Name (or path) of the breaker to which the timing is referenced



Eref1_2 = {'path.name'}

Eref2_2 = {'path.name'}

...

Ref time

Time Tn ID of the referenced breaker's step to which the timing is referenced



Tref1_2 = {Tn}

Tref2_2 = {Tn}

...

Phase/Command

Activate (Phase {1}) or deactivate (Command {0}) the reference dependency



T1_2RPh = {0, 1}

T2_2RPh = {0, 1}

...

Line 3

Ref operation

Name (or path) of the breaker to which the timing is referenced



Eref1_3 = {'path.name'}

Eref2_3 = {'path.name'}

...

Ref time

Time Tn ID of the referenced breaker's step to which the timing is referenced



Tref1_3 = {Tn}

Tref2_3 = {Tn}

...

Phase/Command

Activate (Phase {1}) or deactivate (Command {0}) the reference dependency



T1_3RPh = {0, 1}

T2_3RPh = {0, 1}

...

Line 4

Ref operation

Name (or path) of the breaker to which the timing is referenced



Eref1_4 = {'path.name'}

Eref2_4 = {'path.name'}

...

Ref time

Time Tn ID of the referenced breaker's step to which the timing is referenced



Tref1_4 = {Tn}

Tref2_4 = {Tn}

...

Phase/Command

Activate (Phase {1}) or deactivate (Command {0}) the reference dependency



T1_4RPh = {0, 1}

T2_4RPh = {0, 1}

...

Phase operated

The list of all phases that change state when the timing condition is reached. So if after Tn-1 the A and C phases are OFF and Tn triggers B and C, after Tn phases A and B will be OFF, and C will be ON





Line 1

ON {1}

"Colored" when a state transition shall occur (Line 2)

T1Pa, T1Pb, T1Pc = {0, 1}

T2Pa, T2,Pb, T2Pc = {0, 1}

...

"Grayed out" when no state transition shall occur (Line 2)

Line 2

OFF {0}

"Colored" when a state transition shall occur (Line 2)

T1_2Pa, T1_2Pb, T1_2Pc = {0, 1}

T2_2Pa, T2_2,Pb, T2_2Pc = {0, 1}

...

"Grayed out" when no state transition shall occur (Line 2)

Line 3

ON {1}

"Colored" when a state transition shall occur (Line 2)

T1_3Pa, T1_3Pb, T1_3Pc = {0, 1}

T2_3Pa, T2_3,Pb, T2_3Pc = {0, 1}

...

OFF {0}

"Grayed out" when no state transition shall occur (Line 2)

Line 4

ON {1}

"Colored" when a state transition shall occur (Line 2)

T1_4Pa, T1_4Pb, T1_4Pc = {0, 1}

T2_4Pa, T2_4,Pb, T2_4Pc = {0, 1}

...

OFF {0}

"Grayed out" when no state transition shall occur (Line 2)

Fault Parameters




Name

Description

Unit

Variable = {Possible Values}

Name

Description

Unit

Variable = {Possible Values}

Line 1

Fault resistance

Fault resistance value per phase (Line 1)

Ω

RDef = {0, 1e64}

Ropen

Open resistance value per phase (Line 1)

Ω

ROpen = {0, 1e64}

Rclose

Closed resistance value per phase (Line 1)

Ω

RClose = {0, 1e64}

Chopping current

Current threshold for the opening permission operation (Line 1)

A

Imargin = {0, 1e64}

Line 2

Fault resistance

Fault resistance value per phase (Line 2)

Ω

RDef2 = {0, 1e64}

Ropen

Open resistance value per phase (Line 2)

Ω

ROpen2 = {0, 1e64}

Rclose

Closed resistance value per phase (Line 2)

Ω

RClose2 = {0, 1e64}

Chopping current

Current threshold for the opening permission operation (Line 2)

A

Imargin2 = {0, 1e64}

Line 3

Fault resistance

Fault resistance value per phase (Line 3)

Ω

RDef3 = {0, 1e64}

Ropen

Open resistance value per phase (Line 3)

Ω

ROpen3 = {0, 1e64}

Rclose

Closed resistance value per phase (Line 3)

Ω

RClose3 = {0, 1e64}

Chopping current

Current threshold for the opening permission operation (Line 3)

A

Imargin3 = {0, 1e64}

Line 4

Fault resistance

Fault resistance value per phase (Line 4)

Ω

RDef4 = {0, 1e64}

Ropen

Open resistance value per phase (Line 4)

Ω

ROpen4 = {0, 1e64}

Rclose

Closed resistance value per phase (Line 4)

Ω

RClose4 = {0, 1e64}

Chopping current

Current threshold for the opening permission operation (Line 4)

A

Imargin4 = {0, 1e64}



Line Generator

For more information see https://opal-rt.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/PDOCHS/pages/149979487



Ports, Inputs, Outputs and Signals Available for Monitoring

Ports

This component supports a 12-phase transmission line 

Name

Description

Name

Description

net_1_1(a,b,c)

Network connection of phases (a,b,c) of the left (+) side of line 1

net_1_2(a,b,c)

Network connection of phases (a,b,c) of the right side of line 1

net_2_1(a,b,c)

Network connection of phases (a,b,c) of the left (+) side of line 2

net_2_2(a,b,c)

Network connection of phases (a,b,c) of the right side of line 2

net_3_1(a,b,c)

Network connection of phases (a,b,c) of the left (+) side of line 3

net_3_2(a,b,c)

Network connection of phases (a,b,c) of the right side of line 3

net_4_1(a,b,c)

Network connection of phases (a,b,c) of the left (+) side of line 4

net_4_2(a,b,c)

Network connection of phases (a,b,c) of the right side of line 4



Inputs

None

Outputs

None

Sensors

At acquisition, the signals available by the sensors are:

Name

Description

Unit

Name

Description

Unit

V(a,b,c)_FLT1

Voltage on fault bus of line 1 phases (a,b,c)

V

V(a,b,c)_FLT2

Voltage on fault bus of line 2 phases (a,b,c)

V

V(a,b,c)_FLT3

Voltage on fault bus of line 3 phases (a,b,c)

V

V(a,b,c)_FLT4

Voltage on fault bus of line 4 phases (a,b,c)

V

I(a,b,c,n)_FLT1

Fault current of line 1 (a,b,c,n)

A

I(a,b,c,n)_FLT2

Fault current of line 2 (a,b,c,n)

A

I(a,b,c,n)_FLT3

Fault current of line 3 (a,b,c,n)

A

I(a,b,c,n)_FLT4

Fault current of line 4 (a,b,c,n)

A

CMD(a,b,c,n)_FLT1

Command for states of phase and ground breakers of line 1



CMD(a,b,c,n)_FLT2

Command for states of phase and ground breakers of line 2



CMD(a,b,c,n)_FLT3

Command for states of phase and ground breakers of line 3



CMD(a,b,c,n)_FLT4

Command for states of phase and ground breakers of line 4



Note that the Fault bus referred in the previous table is the point of fault on the line indicated in the form of the model (distance of fault from (+) side).

Calculation of Electrical Parameters

The EMTP “.pun” format is not allowed with this model. However, the electrical parameters of PI lines can be calculated by using the Line Generator Tab.

Types of fault

The fault breakers are shown in the following figure. The types of faults according to the state of the breakers are listed in the table.




Note: For a phase to ground fault, we strongly recommend using the ground in steady state instead of programming a time of operation in transient state.




Types of fault according to state of breakers

State of Breaker

B

C

Ground

State of Breaker

B

C

Ground

No fault

0

0

0

0

Fault between phase C and Ground

0

0

1

1

Fault between phase B and Ground

0

1

0

1

Fault between phases B and C

0

1

1

0

Fault between phases B, C and Ground

0

1

1

1

Fault between phases A and Ground

1

0

0

1

Fault between phases A and C

1

0

1

0

Fault between phases A, C and Ground

1

0

1

1

Fault between phases A and B

1

1

0

0

Fault between phases A, B and Ground

1

1

0

1

Fault between phases A, B and C

1

1

1

0

Fault between phases A, B, C and Ground

1

1

1

1

In the case of a quadruple (12-phase) line with fault, there are five configurations available:

  • 1 section

  • 2 sections

  • 3 sections

  • 4 sections

  • 5 sections

The user must specify the fault distance on each line. This distance must be calculated from side “1” of the line. If the user does not want to use one of the fault elements, he must set the value of the fault distance to 0 for the fault in question. It should be noticed that the fault distance must be lower than the line length. Given the great number of fault location combinations possible with this model, the fault breakers are positioned at each fault distance on each of the 4 lines making up the model. Considering the case with 4 sections (see the following figure), there are three locations on each line where fault breakers have been positioned.

As shown in the figure, 12 fault elements are available, but only 3 or 4 (and not more than 1 per line) can be operated. The breakers that will be operated are those set by the fault distance parameters. For example, given the following parameters:

  • Fault distance - line 1: 85 km

  • Fault distance - line 2: 40 km

  • Fault distance - line 3: 140 km

  • Fault distance - line 4: 40 km

The following elements will be operated: Flt1_2 (line 1), Flt2_1 (line 2), Flt3_3 (line 3) and Flt4_1 (line 4). Note that if the number of sections required does not correspond to the fault distances entered by the user, HYPERSIM gives an error and stops the study.



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